Entered with the products of fiber, or soluble and water-insoluble fibers, are not affected by the enzymes of the gastrointestinal tract. They bind the waste, help them get out of the body. Foods rich in fiber, clean the walls of the intestines, are necessary for the digestive system, metabolic processes, prevention of hemorrhoids, tumors of the large intestine, myocardial infarction, diabetes.
What is fiber
Cellulose shells of plants are composed of cellulose, with the exception of algae. This is a fairly strong and tough substance.
With a strong increase, it looks like a bundle of interconnected long fibers. They are elastic and strong, resistant to the action of digestive enzymes.
Fiber gives little energy, is poorly absorbed. But dietary fiber is essential for the life of the body, preventing various diseases.
There are six types of dietary fiber: cellulose, hemicellulose, pectins, lignin, mucus, gums.
Cellulose consists of the walls of plant cells. Hemicellulose, pectins and lignin are intercellular carbohydrates. Mucus is secreted from seaweed and the seeds of some plants. Kamedi – from the stems and seeds of the tropical flora.
Dietary fibers absorb moisture well, increase volume twice. Shells of grains (bran) are able to absorb water five times their mass.
Flour products almost do not contain fiber. In products of animal origin, it is completely absent.
Insoluble in water fibers – cellulose, lignin – are a part of cabbage, green peas, apples, carrots, peel of cucumbers.
Cellulose refers to carbohydrates, absorbs water well, gives the waste volume and necessary humidity, speeds up their passage and evacuation from the intestine.
Lignin is not a carbohydrate, binds bile acids well, helps lower cholesterol in the blood. Reduces the risk of gallstones. When stored, its amount in vegetables increases.
Insoluble fiber normalizes metabolism. It is needed to prevent chronic constipation, which affects up to half the adult population.
Every day the body gets rid of the mass of waste that is formed after the splitting of food. Increased insoluble fiber tissue waste stimulates peristalsis – undulating shrinkage of the intestinal wall, makes it necessary to regular defecation, prevents constipation.
The use of products containing insoluble fiber, cleanses the walls of the intestine. “Washcloth” made of fibers effectively captures and evacuates waste.
Maintaining the use of fiber natural physiological processes in the intestines increases the body’s defenses, strengthens the immune system.
Timely not evacuated waste is rotting, wandering, the pathogenic microflora develops in the intestine.
In turn, it produces a lot of waste that destroys the mucous membrane, is absorbed into the bloodstream, contributes to the development of diseases of the digestive system, the formation of a tumor.
Water-soluble fibers – pectins, resins (beans), alginase (algae), hemicellulose (oats, barley) – do not swell as a cellulose when water is absorbed, but are converted into bulk jelly with astringent properties. They slow the absorption of carbohydrates and fats, give a quick sense of satiety, contain few calories.
After using them, the blood sugar level increases more slowly. Reduces the amount of insulin, which contributes to the deposition of fats, does not accumulate excess weight.
The plant pectin substances are necessary for the elasticity and elasticity of tissues, to counteract drought. Pectins and resins promote long-term storage of the product.
In the large intestine, pectin cleaves the microflora, supporting the acid balance. In turn, an acidic environment contributes to the destruction of pathogens.
Foods rich in water-soluble fiber, normalize the activity of internal microflora, help to cope with flatulence, reduce the content of putrefactive bacteria in the intestine.
Harm and contraindications
Some for the treatment of diseases of the gastrointestinal tract include in the diet foods rich in fiber. Despite the increased complaints, they continue to take vegetable fibers, which are so useful to the body.
In this case, it is worth using less useful products that have undergone mechanical and thermal treatment than to be treated with coarse insoluble fiber, injuring the weakened mucosa of the digestive system.
Prolonged use of fiber in large quantities, and as a result, a long violation of the principles of rational nutrition can lead to illnesses – associated with improper or inadequate nutrition.
Admission products containing fiber, should be limited in inflammatory bowel diseases, accelerated peristalsis.
Vegetable fibers should not be included in the diet of children up to 5-6 months, as it can cause diarrhea, intestinal colic (paroxysmal pains). It is better to give small, clarified juices without pulp.
Eating foods rich in fiber can cause bloating.
In the elderly, taking large amounts of plant fibers with constipation can lead to incontinence of the stool.
It is not necessary to take food with plant fibers in case of exacerbation of stomach and duodenum ulcers. During periods of remission (weakening or complete disappearance of symptoms), reception is possible.
With diarrhea, plant fibers are contraindicated until the stool is completely restored.
Products containing fiber do not interfere with the absorption of vitamins or trace elements. But medications may not have time to have a therapeutic effect due to the high evacuation ability of dietary fiber.
Insoluble fiber is rough for the digestive tract, it irritates the intestinal wall. The body gets an incentive to completely get rid of its contents as soon as possible.
With prolonged use, the body thickens the mucous membrane, its sensitivity decreases. Simultaneously, its ability to absorb nutrients is deteriorating.
At some point, you have to increase the dose, otherwise the proven way to get rid of constipation stops working.
Decreased digestibility of food, spasms, as well as ulcerative colitis, adherence of intestinal walls, other diseases of the digestive system may result from the use of excessively coarse insoluble fiber.
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